Ars Bellica


Europe at the end of the Thirty Years' War


The Holy Roman Empire is theoretically survived, but is reduced to a mosaic of more than three hundred sovereign states: the red line indicates the theoretical boundaries, but within those boundaries are states of the most various origin (kingdoms, principalities, electorates, duchies, archduchies, bishoprics, archbishoprics, counties, langraviati, margraviati), and even territories whose rulers have their headquarters outside the Empire. Brandenburg, with Berlin as Capital, is in fact part of a lot of the major powers in Eastern Europe by the secularization of the Teutonic Order; the Hohenzollern , that originally came from the Duchy of Prussia (1) was an "alien" empire. Similarly, the Netherlands (2) depend on the King of Spain, while the duchies of Pomerania and Bremen (3) by the King of Sweden. Some bishoprics of the Rhine, including Metz (4), depended by the king of France. To complicate the situation, some lands outside the Empire, like the remnants of the Kingdom of Hungary (5), are subject to the Habsburgs. Together with France one of the hegemonic powers was Sweden, mistress of the Baltic. The Republic of the United Provinces (6) saw de jure recognized its independence. Scotland (7) has become an integral part of the English kingdom. The Ottoman Empire, though defeated at Lepanto in 1571, extended its territories to west until Morocco, and in the East until the Persian Empire, resurrected as an independent state under the Safavid dynasty (1502). Between the Russian state and the Persian Empire survived some Chinghizide khanates, vassals of the Ottoman Empire (8, 9). In Italy (for those not directly subject to Spain) is to be noted that Venice has now lost Cyprus and Crete are going to lose, that the Estes (10) have lost Ferrara, aquired by the Church in 1597, that the extinction of the direct line of the Dukes of Mantua (11) involved the peninsula in the Thirty Years War, and finally that the Duchy of Savoy (12) is more and more turning to the italian Peninsula (1563, transfer of the capital from Chambéry to Turin).

Russia until the era of Peter the Great


The map illustrates the progressive formation of the new Russian state after the crisis of the ancient states of Novgorod and Kiev overwhelmed by the Mongols invasion. The reconquest took place on two fronts, against the warrior-monks of the Teutonic Order, which were stopped by Prince Alexander Nevsky at Lake Peipus in 1242, and against the Tartars, to Kulkovo rejected in 1380 by Prince Dmitry Donskoy. The innermost zone indicates the size of the Principality of Muscovy in the early fourteenth century. In the middle of the fifteenth century, the principality has reached the limits indicated by the second and brither color. With the advent of the Romanovs (Michael III , 1613), the Russian state has been transformed into an empire, has absorbed the territories of the Khanate of Kazan' and a great part of the Khanate of Astrakhan. During the reign of the first three Romanov, Russia and Ukraine extends until Ural mountains. With Peter the Great (1682-1725) starts the conquest of the Baltic, the founding of St. Petersburg (1703) and the defeat of Sweden (Poltava, 1709). Meanwhile, since the sixteenth century, began the penetration and exploration of Siberia (1581 Ermak expedition, from Perm' on the Kama River and up over the Ob').

Europe in 1748 (the Peace of Aachen)


After the wars of religion, those of succession started, with their upheavals of thrones and sovereign. The Holy Roman Empire is still standing (it will suppress by Napoleon), but lost again, in favor of France, others border territories. Sweden, after a brief period of splendor of the seventeenth century, has lost not only the Baltic region but even within the territories of the Holy Roman Empire. As the Crown (the protagonists of the wars of succession), the extinction of the Habsburgs of Spain marked the fortunes of the Bourbons who, in 1748, were kings of France, Spain, Naples and Parma (1). The four kings have formed a pact between their families: in fact, their states have no other bond than the dynastic one. The Habsburgs have increased their possessions in Hungary against the Ottoman Empire, in the Spanish Netherlands (2) and in the Duchy of Milan (3), which was passed from Spain to Austria. The Hohenzollern family, got the royal title (R. of Prussia), purchased within the Holy Roman Empire, Silesia (4). In Italy, the situation has improved significantly, despite the crisis of Venetian trade. Milan is only part of a foreign dominion, but the passage by the Spanish to the Austrian involves a great step forward for the region. The Savoy, received the royal title, bought the Sardinia little benefit to the islanders, but with the final entry in the orbit of the Italian power. Naples and Sicily are the largest Italian State. Tuscany (5), for extinction of the Medici, was assigned to the Lorraine. The other numbers indicate the state of the Church (6), the Republic of Genoa (7), the Duchy of Modena (8) and the Republic of Lucca (9).

The European expansion in America and in Africa until 1750


In North America, the map shows (in brown) the English colonies on the Atlantic coast in 1750, from the island of Newfoundland to Virginia. Further north are the areas controlled by the British Hudson's Bay Company. British are also in Mesoamerica, in part of Honduras (1), Guyana (2), and various islands of the West Indies , including Jamaica (3). Violet color indicates the French colonies of Canada and Louisiana , with unexplored area of the inland (in lighter violet). French was also half of the island of Haiti (4), a part of Guiana (5), and various islands of the West Indies, including Martinique (6). In the map are then shown the four Spaniards Viceroyalties (in green) of New Spain, New Granada, New Castile and La Plata. Spanish was also Florida, the island of Cuba (7), Puerto Rico (8 ) and a part of Haiti (9). In orange are indicated the territories colonized by Portugal in Brazil. The Dutch, in red, who had also founded in 1626 in New York (New Amsterdam), remain in America only a few establishments in the Antilles (CuraÁao, 10) and a part of Guiana (11). The Seven Years' War (largely a colonial war) practically ousted the French from the Americas in 1763: all the territory that enveloped the British coastal passed into British hands until the banks of the Mississippi, and those in Spain beyond the large river. In Africa, the main European funds were , in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Portuguese in Angola and Mozambique, as the Dutch Cape Colony and the French ones of Senegal. Even in Africa, the Seven Years' War led to the crisis of French Senegal in favor of England.