Ars Bellica


The empires of the Mongols from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century


This map shows the expansion of the great Mongol empire of Chinghizide, from the foundation of the dynasty (1196), to the restoration of the Ming Empire in China. The dark color indicates the Mongol expansion at the death of Genghis Khan (122 ), the clear color indicates the maximum extension reached by the "Tartary" in the East and in the West. The arrows indicates: the extremes raids in Europe (Liegnitz and Buda in 1241), down to the Adriatic regions of the Balkan Peninsula; and in Asia, the two failed attempts at invasion of Japan in 1274 and in 1281. The city of Hang- chow, on the China Sea, is described with awe by Marco Polo in a chapter of the Million. The area limited by the red line indicates the maximum extent of the last empire founded by nomads (the Timurid Timur Lang, as known as Tamerlane) in the history of Asia: the last of those invasions that, for millennia, Europe had suffered. Arrows indicate the extremes raids of the "hordes" of Timur Lang (Tamerlane), up to the cities of Delhi (1389) and Izmir (1402).

Italy and the Adriatic Sea at the end of the Middle Ages (1492)


The five signatory states of the Peace of Lodi (the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, the Republic of Florence, the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of the Sforza in Milan) plus the various states of lesser importance, such as the Duchy of Savoy (1), still gravitating beyond the Alps (capital Chambéry), the Marquis of Saluzzo (2), the Marquis of Monferrato (3), the Marquis of Mantua (4), the Duchy of Este (5) (Ferrara, Modena, Reggio), the Republic of Lucca (6), the Republic of Siena (7), the Lordship of Appiani in Piombino (8), with the Island of Elba. Benevento still depends on (and it will depend on until the unification of Italy) by the Papal State. Venice, as well as mainland territories, and most of Istria (but not Trieste), controlled part of Dalmatia, the Ionian Islands, and (out of map), Crete and Cyprus. The two largest islands, Sicily and Sardinia are now foreign to the peninsula and ruled by officials and Viceroy of the Kingdom of Aragon. At the edge of the Duchy of Milan and the Duchy of Savoy, reached independence from the Habsburgs since the end of the fourteenth century, the Eight swiss Cantons, including Bern, Lucerne and Zurich, intended to give life to the Swiss Confederation. The Bishopric of Trent is a fief of Holy roman Empire. On the Adriatic coast overlooked the Kingdom of Hungary, that will be absorbed almost entirely, during the sixteenth century, by the Ottoman Turks, who swept in 1453, the remains of the Byzantine Empire. In 1526 the Ottomans at Mohacs bend the Hungarians, which will allow them to reach for the first time, in 1529, the walls of Vienna. Along the Adriatic coast, the small state of Montenegro Vladiccato (9) and the Republic of Ragusa (10) survive alone until the nineteenth century.

The age of great discoveries and the formation of the first colonial empires


This map shows the last of the great journeys in Asia through the medieval streets (the journey of the Venetian Niccolo dei Conti, 1419-1444) and the great discovery voyages along the new sea routes at the end of the sixteenth century. The routes are shown in the color range of the four most important discovering states: Portugal, in orange (1487 B. Diaz, V. da Gama 1498 PA Cabral 1500 A. Vespucci in 1501); Spain, in green (C. Colombo, 1492, Amerigo Vespucci 1497 F. Magellan 1519-22); England in violet (G. Caboto 1498 S. Cabot 1508); France, in brown (J. Cartier 1534). Along the coast are indicated colonial settlements until 1580, distinguished with the same color of the source State. It 'also indicated the "Raya", that is, the ideal line of separation between the Spanish and the Portuguese possessions, established by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494).

Religions and Europe around 1560


The map shown the situation after the pacification of Augsburg. In addition to the four religions of Western Europe (Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, Anglicans) are indicated greek-orthodox separated by the Catholic Church since 1054, and the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire. The short vertical lines indicate the minorities (eg, the Calvinists in Catholic France). The main Lutheran universities are highlighted in black. Are indicated with a greater circle the dissemination of the main centers of various denominations. Are also shown, in Germany, the city of Augsburg and Wartburg Castle. The map also allows you to identify the political conditions of Europe after the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. In the map are also indicated the domains of Philip of Spain, stretching from the Iberian Peninsula to the Netherlands to Italy, in the territories indicated with the number 1. Ferdinand of Habsburg, in addition to the hereditary dominions of Austria and the remnants of the Kingdom of Hungary (2), has been awarded of the title of Holy Roman Emperor . Scotland (3) was still an independent kingdom. Denmark was united into a single kingdom with Norway since 1397. Sweden has detached itself from the Union. In Eastern Europe, as well as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, are indicated the Christianized lands of the Teutonic Order. The Reformation led to the dissolution of the Order and the establishment of some ducats laity (4), including that of Prussia. More to the east, after the backflow of Chinghizide, extends the Principality of Muscovy, whose ruler, in 1547, assumed the title of tsar (Zar). Survived in the Russian regions, some reign founded by the Mongol khanates (eg the Crimean Khanate, out of map). The Ottoman Empire has now extended beyond the limits of the Balkan Peninsula. Only few countries and islands of the Adriatic and Aegean (Crete) survived in the hands of Venice (5) or are independent principalities (Montenegro, Dubrovnik). In Italy, the Republic of Siena was absorbed by the Medici Grand Duchy (6). The cantons of the Swiss Confederation (7) has been recognized independently by the Habsburgs.