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The balance "organized" by the Congress of Vienna, however, soon proved to be very fragile. The liberal and democratic opposition to absolutist regimes gave the first shock to the institution of the Congress of Vienna. The international nature of the agreements of 1815 had also feature trigger movements that propagated as a sort of international chain reaction. There was no time to wait. In January of 1820 the Spanish liberals forced the king to grant a constitution. In July of the same year the same thing happened in Naples. In March of 1821 it was the turn of the kingdom of Sardinia, where the insurgents were hoping for a strong adhesion of Prince Charles Albert, heir to the throne, which were attributed liberal sympathies. The European powers, with readiness, were resolved to act. The Austrians intervened in Italy in 1821 and France in 1823 crushed the Spanish Revolution. In 1825 the revolutionary movement also failed Decembrist in the autocratic Tsarist Russia.
The "Eastern Question" complicated the international scene and confirmed that the Ottoman Empire was not able to settle on the acquired positions. The Greek revolution, which began in 1821, ended victoriously in 1830 with the decisive help of Great Britain, France and Russia. The latter, while declaring guarantor of order, could not resist the temptation to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the Ottoman decline to extend its sphere of influence to the Balkans. The Greek independence then dragged along the autonomy of Serbia, Moldavia and Wallachia. The system found itself in 1815 to crack for responsibility of his own supporters. A breach was now open. In France, the ultraconservative politics of Charles X, who succeeded in 1824 by Louis XVIII, led to the liberal revolution of July 1830, which gave the crown to Louis Philippe d'Orléans. A new chain reaction exploded from this event. It arrived in the West to the independence of Belgium and Luxembourg, while in the East the Polish revolution was crushed by Tsarist troops. In Italy it produced new movements and a more solid and unified national sentiment come out. Was on the other side off the Carbonari era, the secret societies and illegal conspiracies for freedom was developed at the same time the initiative of the peoples, nations and governments. The European policy framework was already profoundly changed.


Battaglie in Sintesi

Battle of Trocadero

August 31, 1823

The battle for the fort of Trocadero not only deliver to the invading French realists the keys to the city of Cadiz, but will re-establish in charge the king Ferdinand VII, so restored the monarchy in Spain ending the three-year era of liberal Spain.

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